General Paper 1: Research Methodology

Research Methodology

Research Steps
Identify research problem
Research objectives
Collection of data
Conclusion & discussion
A Hypothesis is a Supposition
A basic unit of analysis in a given research study is called Respondent
Difference between population parameter and sample statistic is called Sample error
Rejection of null hypothesis when it is known as Type 1 error
B Malinowski first anthropologist who used participant observation method
T formula has been given by Fisher
Durkheim believed in objective approach of methodology
Weber believed in subjective approach of methodology
F Tonnies – The aim of sociology is to treat social fact as things
Treat social facts as things – E Durkheim
RM Maclver - Fact is an empirically verifiable observation
G Simmel – The chief advocate of Inverse Deductive Method
Concept of alienation as a diagnostic tool for sociological inquiry – Hegel
The Book “Division of labour”Emile Durkheim
Science is to be judged by three criteria reliability of knowledge and its method
Social Survey data in tables first developed by – Lazarsfeld
The Book “Street corner society” – WF Whyte
Middle Range Theory – P Sorokin
The Book “League of Iroquios– LH Morgan

Match the Pairs
1) Mode – Central Tendency
Mean Deviation – Dispersion
Chi-square – Association of attributes
Karl Pearson Method – Correlation

2) Average – Measures of Central Tendency
Averages of average – Measures of Dispersion
Variables – Correlation
Attributes – Chi-square

3) Standard Deviationa measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values
Correlation common usage it most often refers to the extent to which two variables have a linear relationship with each other.
Chi-square – Explains significance of differences between two samples
T-testExplains association with attributes, also examines whether two samples are different and is commonly used when the variances of two normal distributions are unknown and when an experiment uses a small sample size
4) Dispersion refers to the Central Tendency
A declarative statement of relationship among variable is calledHypothesis
5) Participant Observation Method – WHR Rivers
Marxian Dialectical approach – DP Mukherjee
Ideal type Method – M Weber
Trinitarian Model – A Beteille
6) Structured Interview – Research
Semi Structured Interview - Flexible but structured
Non-directive – In-depth task on issue
Focused interview schedule - Free depth task on issue

Syllogistic Reasoning is Deductive
Logical argument are based on Syllogistic reasoning
Inductive reasoning is grounded on Uniformity of nature
A Thesis statement is an assertion
The principles of fundamental research are used in Applied Research
Action Research is carried out to solve immediate problems
Historical Research cannot be genralised to another situation
Null hypothesis- Hypothesis of no difference or there is no difference between the variables
CSS- Cascading Style Sheets
Sampling error decreases with increase in sample size
Manipulation is always part of Descriptive Research
Variance – The average of the squared differences from the mean
To test null hypothesis a researcher uses – X2
F-test – Parametric Test
Regression – estimating the relationships among variables.
Venn diagram – represents and assess the validity of elementary inferences of syllogistic form
The Curved line type relationship is referred as Non-Linear relationship

Definitions - Definition is the means of avoiding the ambiguity, vagueness and metaphoric quality of words, concepts and terms and hence of meaning
  1. Lexical Definition - To introduce the words of a language to a new comer, be it a baby or a foreigner, lexical definitions are used for common names, lexical definition which is true or false, ex. Parrot, book, pen etc.( Common Names)
  2. Stipulative Definition - Whenever a new term is invented, the inventor gave meaning to the term Stipulative definition is neither true nor false.
  3. Precising Definition – precise in nature for ex. Adult who is above 18
  4. Theoretical Definition - A theoretical definition is a definition of a term in terms of theoretically meaningful and adequate and useful conception. For ex. Socrates defines knowledge as ‘True Justified Belief’
  5. Persuasive DefinitionA persuasive definition is one aimed at evoking are emotion or alter an opinion, example of a fundamentalist Christian - who is against abortion – offering a definition of abortion as the murder of the helpless, and violation of the right of life to the youngest of our citizen”.

Types of Sampling
A) Probability Sampling – Involves random selection of elements in which each element has chance of being selected
Random, Stratified Random, cluster, systematic
  1. Random Sampling – All members of population have an equal chance of being selected
  2. Simple Random Sampling – population divided into groups (age, income location etc) and sub samples are selected from each strata
  3. Stratified Random Sampling – population is divided in different slabs and the sample will be selected randomly from each slab
  4. Cluster Sampling – randomly selecting intact groups not individuals, within defined population sharing same characteristic.
  5. Systematic Sampling - Selecting every Kth subject from list of members of population
  6. Multi-Stage Sampling
  7. Multi-Phase Sampling
B) Non- Probability Sampling – Involves non-random method in the selection of elements in which not all have equal chance of being selected
  1. Purposive Sampling – Used when you want to access a particular subset of people based on purpose
  2. Convenience sampling – Samples are familiar to the researcher for ex. Friends , co-workers
  3. Snowball Sampling – Is done with the help of study participant to choose other potential participant
  4. Sequential sampling -
  5. Quota Sampling – number of sample which must attain
  6. Areal Sampling – units are divided into small unit
  7. Judgment sampling – sampling which particular units are to study                                                              By: Manish 

No comments: